Assessment of hand hygiene levels among healthcare professionals in India


Rohin Rameswarapu, Surendranath Sai K, Sameer Valsangkar




Introduction: Hand hygiene, either by hand disinfection or hand washing remains to be most pivotal in controlling infection in healthcare settings. Simple preventive measures have been proven effective to contain infections. The exiguity on studies done in healthcare settings in India has galvanized us to undertake this study on hand hygiene assessment among nurses in a healthcare setting in India

Materials and methods: A cross sectional study was done in one of leading organization in preventive and promotive healthcare in India. . Hand Hygiene Self-Assessment Framework 2010 by World Health Organization was the tool used for the study. The tool had 5 components envisaging education and training, system change, institutional safety, reminders and evaluation and feedback for hand hygiene. Data was entered in Microsoft Excel and percentages were derived.

Results: Among 120 medical rooms, 57% of the medical rooms had basic hygiene, while 32% had intermediate hygiene levels and 11% of the medical rooms had advanced hygiene levels.

Conclusion: An advanced level of hand hygiene program with elements of infection control should be offered to the all the professionals working in healthcare setting. Cultural and behavioural issues would play in role in low compliance despite of the efforts to improve quality of healthcare.




Hand hygiene levels, best practices, quality care


Full Text:




WHO guidelines on hand hygiene in health care [Internet]. 2015 [cited 9 January 2015]. Available from:

F A. Hand-washing patterns in medical intensive-care units. – PubMed – NCBI [Internet]. 2015 [cited 9 January 2015]. Available from: Handwashing and glove use in a long-term-care facility. – PubMed – NCBI [Internet]. 2015 [cited 9 January 2015]. Available from:

Metintas S, Akgun Y, Durmaz G, Kalyoncu C. Prevalence and characteristics of nosocomial infections in a Turkish university hospital. American Journal of Infection Control [Internet]. 2004 [cited 9 January 2015];32(7):409-413. Available from:

Lizandra Ferreira de Almeida e Borges P. Low Compliance to Handwashing Program and High Nosocomial Infection in a Brazilian Hospital. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases [Internet]. 2012 [cited 9 January 2015];2012. Available from:

Pittet D, Hugonnet S, Harbarth S, Mourouga P, Sauvan V, Touveneau S et al. Effectiveness of a hospital-wide programme to improve compliance with hand hygiene. The Lancet [Internet]. 2000 [cited 9 January 2015];356(9238):1307-1312. Available from:

Allegranzi B, Conway L, Larson E, Pittet D. Status of the implementation of the World Health Organization multimodal hand hygiene strategy in United States of America health care facilities. American Journal of Infection Control. 2014;42(3):224-230.

Pittet D, Boyce J. Hand hygiene and patient care: pursuing the Semmelweis legacy. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2001;1:9-20.

Mathai E, Allegranzi B, Kilpatrick C, Bagheri Nejad S, Graafmans W, Pittet D. Promoting hand hygiene in healthcare through national/subnational campaigns. Journal of Hospital Infection. 2011;77(4):294-298.




Copyright (c) 2015 International Journal of Biomedical and Advance Research

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Dr. Jun Ren is a dedicated and experienced registered dietitian and nutritionist who is committed to helping people achieve their health goals through personalized nutrition plans. With a passion for promoting healthy eating habits and preventing chronic diseases, Dr. Ren has been able to assist numerous clients in improving their overall quality of life.

Leave a Comment